“student Loan Data Privacy: Safeguarding Borrower Information” – Compassionate flexibility and self-discipline: Adapting students to emergency distance learning in an integrated engineering energy course during COVID-19

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“student Loan Data Privacy: Safeguarding Borrower Information”

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The Top Security Risks To Be Aware Of When Managing Your Digital Assets

Received: 21 September 2020 / Revised: 11 October 2020 / Accepted: 22 October 2020 / Published: 25 October 2020

Around the world, the number of cases of COVID-19 continues to rise day by day, despite the strict measures taken by many countries. As a result, universities have closed to minimize face-to-face contact, and most universities are now delivering their degree programs via online delivery. Online delivery and distance assessment are new experiences for many universities and present many challenges, particularly in safeguarding academic integrity. For example, observed ratings, which are often considered more secure, are not an option given the current situation, and detecting any cheating would be a major challenge. This paper addresses the security of assessment in the digital domain and critically assesses the practices of various universities in safeguarding academic integrity, including the associated challenges.

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, most governments around the world have temporarily closed educational institutions to contain the spread of the virus. These closures affect more than 60% of the world’s student population [1]. According to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, school closures affected 67.7% of all enrolled students in the 144 countries that imposed closures. This number corresponds to students enrolled in preschool, primary, lower secondary, upper secondary and tertiary education. In a recent survey, 86% of college presidents identified summer enrollment as their most pressing issue in light of COVID-19 [2]. Additionally, graduation ceremonies around the world have been postponed indefinitely and student/graduate unemployment rates have increased dramatically [3, 4, 5].

Education providers catering to all levels of students are transitioning to distance learning and online assessment despite the many challenges it brings. Distance learning or online teaching has affected all branches of education. For example, this has severely affected the primary education sector, as students are too dependent on teachers, while in both the secondary and tertiary sectors, students face the challenge of completing their curricula and preparing for benchmarks or final exams in a short period of time. time period. However, there is uncertainty regarding the implementation of benchmarking, particularly in the secondary and higher education sectors. The exams cannot be taken online because they require strict supervision. Among the challenges teachers face are academic integrity and assessing students when students are not physically in the classroom. Periodic assessment and evaluation is possible through homework, although in some cases it poses a threat to academic integrity. Many unsupervised writing assignments in the higher education sector can still function during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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On 23 March 2020, Cambridge International Examinations (CIE) issued a statement canceling the Cambridge IGCSE, Cambridge O Level, Cambridge International AS and A Level, Cambridge AICE (Cambridge Advanced International Certificate of Education) Diploma and Cambridge Pre-U examinations for the May series/ June 2020 in all countries [6]. Advanced Placement, SAT (Scholastic Assessment Test) and ACT (American College Testing) administrations have been moved online and canceled. In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the West-African Examination Council (WAEC) has issued a notice to postpone the WASSCE examination until further notice due to the outbreak of COVID-19. The West African Examinations Council (WAEC) has expressed willingness to hold an independent examination this year for Ghanaian candidates sitting for the West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) [7]. Due to COVID-19 precautions [8], tests are affected in all SSA countries. IELTS (International English Language Testing System) exams have been suspended in Sri Lanka, and since the start of the pandemic in March, the British Council has issued a notice banning candidates who have recently traveled to China from taking the IELTS exam [9]. ]. In addition, major international exams such as Cambridge IGCSE, Cambridge O/L Exams, Cambridge International AS and A Level, Cambridge AICE Diploma and Cambridge Pre-U have been suspended [6].

To provide a quick overview of the topic to a wider readership, the Introduction is organized into three subheadings that are key to understanding the topic discussed in this paper: Section 1.1 presents an overview of the concept of academic integrity, from which the discussion in Section 1.2 branches; academic integrity practices in a pre-COVID scenario; and Section 1.3 introduces the concept of evaluation security.

The definition of academic integrity is complex and the definition of academic integrity is largely based on consensus. According to the International Center for Academic Integrity, academic integrity is defined “as a commitment to six core values, even in the face of adversity: honesty, trust, justice, respect, responsibility, and courage” [10].

Teresa ‘Teddi’ Fishman believes that the academic integrity movement in the United States prompted an early turn to concepts of academic integrity based on British higher education models that address ethical and moral issues [11]. Universities and providers of higher education in the United States enjoy a high degree of autonomy, and this autonomy was reaffirmed in 1819 when the “Supreme Court of the United States” ruled that “the government of New Hampshire had no legal right to exercise governing authority over a university” [11] According to Fishman, higher education in the USA is independent of state or national governance [11] and quality control of higher education falls under the purview of private accrediting agencies [11].

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In Australia, academic integrity means “acting with the values ​​of honesty, trust, fairness, respect and responsibility in learning, teaching and research” [12]. Four major pieces of legislation and supporting regulations in Australia require universities to uphold academic integrity, which is central to educational standards. These legislations include: (1) Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency Act 2011, (2) Higher Education Standards Framework (Threshold Standards) 2015, (3) Overseas Student Education Services Act 2000 et seq. the related National Code of Practice for Registrars and Providers of Overseas Student Education and Training 2007 and (4) the Australian Code of Responsible Conduct in Research 2007. Like the US, Australia considers the primacy of institutional autonomy to be a top priority in relation to academic integrity [12]. Principle 2 is based on the collective responsibility of staff and students, while Principle 3 emphasizes the importance of a holistic university approach to academic integrity. In practice, however, international students at Australian universities, particularly Chinese students, are said to be less accustomed to academic integrity practices in Australia. Tracey Bretag writes how Ballard and Clanchy (1991) first identified the difficulties Chinese students had in citing the work of others according to Western academic conventions [13] (p. 24). In Australia, academic integrity is called “educational integrity”, as academic integrity is understood as a commitment not only of students, but also of everyone involved in higher education [13]. The idea that academic integrity is more than a commitment to students resonates with understandings of academic integrity in the UK. Bretag cites an excerpt from the Asia Pacific Forum on Educational Integrity (APFEI) website, which explains that “educational integrity” is “multidimensional” and is only possible through the joint effort of everyone in “the educational enterprise, from students to teachers, librarians, counselors , researchers and administrators” [13]. With this explanation, it is obvious why APFEI introduces ‘integrity’ with ‘educational’ instead of just combining ‘integrity’ with the usual term ‘academic’.

An academic from the Vriie Universiteit Amsterdam reveals that “not everyone is bothered by thinking about integrity. Integrity is not always on the agenda. Attention is a challenge” [14]. Another academic from the University of Reading highlighted “pressure to perform, academics are under pressure to offer students a high quality education, students are also under pressure, financial pressure, families, parents,

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